2.9 Post-installation

Configuration of various options follows the successful installation. An option can be configured by re-entering the configuration options before booting the new FreeBSD system or after installation using /stand/sysinstall and selecting Configure.

2.9.1 Network Device Configuration

If you previously configured PPP for an FTP install, this screen will not display and can be configured later as described above.

For detailed information on Local Area Networks and configuring FreeBSD as a gateway/router refer to the tutorial PPP- Pendantic PPP Primer.

                          User Confirmation Requested 
       Would you like to configure Ethernet or SLIP/PPP network devices?
    
                                 [ Yes ]   No

To configure a network device, select [ Yes ] and press Enter. Otherwise, select [ No ] to continue.

Figure 2-31. Selecting An Ethernet Device

Select the interface to be configured with the arrow keys and press Enter.

                          User Confirmation Requested 
           Do you want to try IPv6 configuration of the interface?
    
                                  Yes   [ No ]

In this private local area network the current Internet type protocol (IPv4) was sufficient and [ No ] was selected with the arrow keys and Enter pressed.

If you want to try the new Internet protocol (IPv6), choose [ Yes ] and press Enter. It will take several seconds to scan for RA servers.

                                 User Confirmation Requested 
            Do you want to try DHCP configuration of the interface?
    
                                  Yes   [ No ]

If DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is not required select [ No ] with the arrow keys and press Enter.

Selecting [ Yes ] will execute dhclient, and if successful, will fill in the network configuration information automatically. Refer to Section 17.8 for more information.

The following Network Configuration screen shows the configuration of the Ethernet device for a system that will act as the gateway for a Local Area Network.

Figure 2-32. Set Network Configuration For ed0

Use Tab to select the information fields and fill in appropriate information:

Host

The fully-qualified hostname, e.g. k6-2.example.com in this case.

Domain

The name of the domain that your machine is in, e.g. example.com for this case.

IPv4 Gateway

IP address of host forwarding packets to non-local destinations. Fill this in only if the machine is a node on the network. Leave this field blank if the machine is the gateway to the Internet for the network.

Name server

IP address of your local DNS server. There is no local DNS server on this private local area network so the IP address of the provider's DNS server (208.163.10.2) was used.

IPv4 address

The IP address to be used for this interface was (192.168.0.1).

Netmask

The address block being used for this local area network is a Class C block (192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255). The default netmask is for a Class C network (255.255.255.0).

Extra options to ifconfig

Any interface-specific options to ifconfig you would like to add. There were none in this case.

Use Tab to select [ OK ] when finished and press Enter.

                          User Confirmation Requested 
            Would you like to Bring Up the ed0 interface right now?
    
                                 [ Yes ]   No

Choosing [ Yes ] and pressing Enter will bring the machine up on the network and be ready for use after leaving leaving the installation.

2.9.2 Configure Internet Services

                          User Confirmation Requested
    Do you want to configure inetd and the network services that it provides?
    
                                   Yes   [ No ]

If [ No ] is selected, various services such telnetd will not be enabled. This means that remote users will not be able to telnet into this machine. Local users will be still be able to access remote machines with telnet.

These services can be enabled after installation by editing /etc/inetd.conf with your favorite text editor. See Section 17.12.1 for more information.

Select [ Yes ] if you wish to configure these services during install. An additional confirmation will display.

                          User Confirmation Requested
    The Internet Super Server (inetd) allows a number of simple Internet
    services to be enabled, including finger, ftp and telnetd.  Enabling
    these services may increase risk of security problems by increasing
    the exposure of your system.
    
    With this in mind, do you wish to enable inetd?
    
                                 [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] to continue.

                          User Confirmation Requested
    inetd(8) relies on its configuration file, /etc/inetd.conf, to determine
    which of its Internet services will be available.  The default FreeBSD
    inetd.conf(5) leaves all services disabled by default, so they must be
    specifically enabled in the configuration file before they will
    function, even once inetd(8) is enabled.  Note that services for
    IPv6 must be seperately enabled from IPv4 services.
    
    Select [Yes] now to invoke an editor on /etc/inetd.conf, or [No] to
    use the current settings.
    
                                 [ Yes ]   No

Selecting [ Yes ] will allow adding services by deleting the # at the beginning of a line.

Figure 2-33. Editing inetd.conf

After adding the desired services, pressing Esc will display a menu which will allow exiting and saving the changes.

2.9.3 Configure Gateway

                           User Confirmation Requested 
           Do you want this machine to function as a network gateway?
    
                                  [ Yes ]    No

If the machine will be acting as the gateway for a local area network and forwarding packets between other machines then select [ Yes ] and press Enter. If the machine is a node on a network then select [ No ] and press Enter to continue.

2.9.4 Anonymous FTP

                          User Confirmation Requested
     Do you want to have anonymous FTP access to this machine? 
    
                                  Yes    [ No ]

2.9.4.1 Deny Anonymous FTP

Selecting the default [ No ] and pressing Enter will still allow users who have accounts with passwords to use FTP to access the machine.

2.9.4.2 Allow Anonymous FTP

Anyone can access your machine if you elect to allow anonymous FTP connections. The security implications should be considered before enabling this option. For more information about security see Chapter 10.

To allow anonymous FTP, use the arrow keys to select [ Yes ] and press Enter. The following screens (or similar) will display :

Figure 2-34. Default Anonymous FTP Configuration

Pressing F1 will display the help :

    This screen allows you to configure the anonymous FTP user.
    
    The following configuration values are editable:
    
    UID:     The user ID you wish to assign to the anonymous FTP user.
             All files uploaded will be owned by this ID.
    
    Group:   Which group you wish the anonymous FTP user to be in.
    
    Comment: String describing this user in /etc/passwd
    
    
    FTP Root Directory:
    
            Where files available for anonymous FTP will be kept.
    
    Upload subdirectory:
    
            Where files uploaded by anonymous FTP users will go.

The ftp root directory will be put in /var by default. If you do not have enough room there for the anticipated FTP needs, the /usr directory could be used by setting the FTP Root Directory to /usr/ftp.

When you are satisfied with the values, press Enter to continue.

                              User Confirmation Requested 
             Create a welcome message file for anonymous FTP users?
    
                                  [ Yes ]    No

If you select [ Yes ] and press Enter, an editor will automatically start allowing you to edit the message.

Figure 2-35. Edit The FTP Welcome Message

This is a text editor called ee. Use the instructions to change the message or change the message later using a text editor of your choice. Note the file name/location at the bottom.

Press Esc and a pop-up menu will default to a) leave editor. Press Enter to exit and continue.

2.9.5 Configure Network File Services

Network File Services (NFS) allows sharing of files across a network. A machine can be configured as a server, a client, or both. Refer to Section 17.4 for a more information.

2.9.5.1 NFS Server

                           User Confirmation Requested
     Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS server? 
    
                                  Yes    [ No ]

If there is no need for a Network File System server or client, select [ No ] and press Enter.

If [ Yes ] is chosen, a message will pop-up indicating that the exports file must be created.

                                   Message
    Operating as an NFS server means that you must first configure an
    /etc/exports file to indicate which hosts are allowed certain kinds of
    access to your local file systems.
    Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
                                   [ OK ]

Press Enter to continue. A text editor will start allowing the exports file to be created and edited.

Figure 2-36. Editing the Exports File

Use the instructions to add the actual exported filesystems now or later using a text editor of your choice. Note the filename/location at the bottom of the editor screen.

Press Esc and a pop-up menu will default to a) leave editor. Press Enter to exit and continue.

2.9.5.2 NFS Client

                           User Confirmation Requested
     Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS client? 
    
                                  Yes   [ No ]

With the arrow keys, select [ Yes ] or [ No ] as appropriate and press Enter.

2.9.6 Security Profile

A security profile is a set of configuration options that attempts to achieve the desired ratio of security to convenience by enabling and disabling certain programs and other settings.

More information about security profiles can be found in the FreeBSD FAQ.

                           User Confirmation Requested
     Do you want to select a default security profile for this host (select
     No for "medium" security)? 
    
                                [ Yes ]    No

Selecting [ No ] and pressing Enter will set the security profile to medium.

Selecting [ Yes ] and pressing Enter will allow selecting a different security profile.

Figure 2-37. Security Profile Options

Press F1 to display the help. Press Enter to return to selection menu.

Use the arrow keys to choose Medium unless your are sure that another level is required for your needs. With [ OK ] highlighted, press Enter.

An appropriate confirmation message will display depending on which security setting was chosen.

                                     Message
    
    Moderate security settings have been selected.
    
    Sendmail and SSHd have been enabled, securelevels are
    disabled, and NFS server setting have been left intact.
    PLEASE NOTE that this still does not save you from having
    to properly secure your system in other ways or exercise
    due diligence in your administration, this simply picks
    a standard set of out-of-box defaults to start with.
    
    To change any of these settings later, edit /etc/rc.conf
    
                                      [OK]
                                     Message
    
    Extreme security settings have been selected.
    
    Sendmail, SSHd, and NFS services have been disabled, and
    securelevels have been enabled.
    PLEASE NOTE that this still does not save you from having
    to properly secure your system in other ways or exercise
    due diligence in your administration, this simply picks
    a more secure set of out-of-box defaults to start with.
    
    To change any of these settings later, edit /etc/rc.conf
    
                                      [OK]

Press Enter to continue with the post-installation configuration.

2.9.7 System Console Settings

There are several options available to customize the system console.

                          User Confirmation Requested 
           Would you like to customize your system console settings?
    
                                  [ Yes ]  No

To view and configure the options, select [ Yes ] and press Enter.

Figure 2-38. System Console Configuration Options

A commonly used option is the screensaver. Use the arrow keys to select Saver and then press Enter.

Figure 2-39. Screensaver Options

Select the desired screen saver using the arrow keys and then press Enter. The System Console Configuration menu will redisplay.

The default time interval is 300 seconds. To change the time interval, select Saver again. At the Screensaver Options menu, select Timeout using the arrow keys and press Enter. A pop-up menu will appear :

Figure 2-40. Screensaver Timeout

The value can be changed, then select [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the System Console Configuration menu.

Figure 2-41. System Console Configuration Exit

Selecting Exit and pressing Enter will continue with the post-installation configurations.

2.9.8 Setting The Time Zone

Setting the timezone for your machine will allow it to automatically correct for any regional time changes and perform other timezone related functions properly.

The example shown is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of the United States. Your selections will vary according to your geographical location.

                          User Confirmation Requested 
              Would you like to set this machine's time zone now?
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to set the time zone.

                           User Confirmation Requested
     Is this machine's CMOS clock set to UTC? If it is set to local time
     or you don't know, please choose NO here! 
    
                                  Yes   [ No ]

Select [ Yes ] or [ No ] according to how the machine's clock is configured and press Enter.

Figure 2-42. Select Your Region

The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then press Enter.

Figure 2-43. Select Your Country

Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press Enter.

Figure 2-44. Select Your Timezone

The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing Enter.

                                Confirmation 
                Does the abbreviation 'EDT' look reasonable?
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it looks okay, press Enter to continue with the post-installation configuration.

2.9.9 Linux Compatibility

                          User Confirmation Requested 
              Would you like to enable Linux binary compatibility?
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Selecting [ Yes ] and pressing Enter will allow running Linux software on FreeBSD. The install will proceed to add the appropriate packages for Linux compatibility.

If installing by FTP, the machine will need to be connected to the Internet. Sometimes a remote ftp site will not have all the distributions like the Linux binary compatibility. This can be installed later if necessary.

2.9.10 Mouse Settings

This option will allow you to cut and paste text in the console and user programs with a 3-button mouse. If using a 2-button mouse, refer to manual page, moused(8), after installation for details on emulating the 3-button style. This example depicts a non-USB mouse.

                          User Confirmation Requested 
             Does this system have a non-USB mouse attached to it?
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] for a non-USB mouse or [ No ] for a USB mouse and press Enter.

Figure 2-45. Select Mouse Protocol Type

Use the arrow keys to select Type and press Enter

Figure 2-46. Set Mouse Protocol

The mouse used in this example is a PS/2 type, so the default Auto was appropriate. To change protocol, use the arrow keys to select another option. Ensure that [ OK ] is highlighted and press Enter to exit this menu.

Figure 2-47. Configure Mouse Port

Use the arrow keys to select Port and press Enter.

Figure 2-48. Setting The Mouse Port

This system had a PS/2 mouse, so the default PS/2 was appropriate. To change the port, use the arrow keys and then press Enter.

Figure 2-49. Enable The Mouse Daemon

Last, the mouse daemon is enabled and tested.

Figure 2-50. Test The Mouse Daemon

The cursor moved around the screen so the mouse daemon is running:

Select [ Yes ] to return to the previous menu then select Exit with the arrow keys and press Enter to return to continue with the post-installation configuration.

2.9.11 Configure X-Server

In order to use a graphical user interface such as KDE, GNOME, or others, the X server will need to be configured.

To see whether your video card is supported, check the XFree86 web site. If your video card is only supported under XFree86 4.x, refer to Chapter 5 for installation and configuration.

                          User Confirmation Requested 
            Would you like to configure your X server at this time?
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Warning: It is necessary to know your monitor specifications and video card information. Equipment damage can occur if settings are incorrect. If you do not have this information, select [ No ] and perform the configuration after installation when you have the information using /stand/sysinstall, selecting Configure and then XFree86.

If you have graphics card and monitor information, select [ Yes ] and press Enter to proceed with configuring the X server.

Figure 2-51. Select Configuration Method Menu

There are several ways to configure the X server. XF86Setup is fully graphical and probably the easiest. Use the arrow keys to select the XF86Setup and press Enter.

                                    Message
     You have configured and been running the mouse daemon. 
     Choose "/dev/sysmouse" as the mouse port and "SysMouse" or
     "MouseSystems" as the mouse protocol in the X configuration utility. 
    
                                     [ OK ]
    
                          [ Press enter to continue ]

This indicates that the mouse daemon previously configured has been detected. Press Enter to continue.

                    Press [Enter] to switch to graphics mode. 
    
                             This may take a while... 
    
                                     [ OK ]

Press Enter to switch to the graphics mode and continue. It will not try to switch to the graphics mode until Enter is pressed. The screen will go black and then shortly a screen with a large X in the center will appear. Be patient and wait.

After a few more moments, the XF86Setup introduction will display. Read all instructions carefully. Press Enter to continue.

XF86Setup Overview

There are several areas of configuration to be completed. The configuration choices you make will depend on the hardware in the system so only a general overview can be given here.

Along the top of the configuration tool there are buttons indicating the areas to be configured. You should be able to use the mouse if it was previously configured and select each item by clicking on it. Review each area and make appropriate selections for your system.

  1. Mouse

    The mouse is the first item to be configured. If you previously configured your mouse, the mouse daemon will already be running and should indicate SysMouse automatically for the mouse protocol. If you are use a two button mouse, you should also select Emulate3Buttons. There are other settings that can be tweaked if necessary.

    After completing your selections, click on the Apply and check the mouse actions are working properly. If further adjustment is needed, make them and recheck the operation by clicking on Apply again. When finished, move on to the next item.

  2. Keyboard

    Select the appropriate keyboard model. The default keyboard is Generic 101-key PC.

    Select the language layout for your keyboard. The default layout is U.S. English. If you are not using a U.S. keyboard, you may need to additionally select a variant.

    There are other options under Group Shift/Lock behavior and Control Key Position that can be selected if desired. Generally the default settings are fine.

    After completing the keyboard configuration, click on Apply and move on to the next item.

  3. Card

    Click on Read README file for additional help in configuring your video card.

    Select the appropriate video card from the list using the scrollbar. Clicking on your card will show as ``Card selected:'' above the list box.

    Next, the Detailed Setup was selected just to check details. Typically, if your video card was in the list, no changes will be needed here.

    When finished, move on to the next item.

  4. Monitor

    There are two ways to proceed. One method requires that you enter the horizontal and vertical sweep capabilities of your monitor in the text boxes.

    Choosing one of the monitor options listed that the monitor is the other method. After selecting a listed option, the horizontal and vertical sweep rates that will be used will display. Compare those to your monitor specifications. The monitor must be capable of using those ranges.

    Do not exceed the ratings of your monitor. Damage could occur. If you have doubts select ABORT and get the information. The remainder of the installation process will be unaffected and configuring the X-Server can be done later using /stand/sysinstall.

    When finished, move on to the next item.

  5. Mode

    Select the video mode(s) that you want to use. You can select more than one option. Typically, useful ranges are 640x480, 800x600, and 1024x768 but those are a function of video card capability, monitor size, and eye comfort.

    Next, select the default color depth you want to use. Your choices are 8bpp, 16bpp, 24bpp, and 32bpp. Select the highest color depth that your video card will support.

    When finished, move on to the next item.

  6. Other

    The default settings are reasonable values, so you probably will not need to change anything here.

    The default setting which allows the server to be killed with the hotkey sequence Ctrl+Alt+Backspace should be left on. This can be executed if something is wrong with the server settings and prevent hardware damage.

    The default setting that allows video mode switching will permit changing of the mode while running X with the hotkey sequence Alt++ or Alt+-.

  7. Testing the Server

    Verify all the settings once again and select Done and the following message will display :

        If you've finished configuring everything press the
        Okay button to start the X server using the configuration
        you've selected.  If you still wish to configure some things,
        press one of the buttons at the top and then press "Done" again,
        when you've finished.
    

    After selecting Okay, some messages will briefly appear advising to wait and attempting to start the X-server. This process takes a few moments, so be patient.

    The screen will go blank for a short period of time and then a screen will appear with the message ``Congratulations, you've got a running server!''

    If nothing appears or the display is distorted, kill the X-server using Ctrl+Alt+Backspace and adjust the settings or revisit them after installation.

  8. Running xvidtune

    The display can be adjusted for height, width, or centering by using xvidtune.

    There are warnings that improper settings can damage your equipment. Heed them. If in doubt, do not do it. Instead, use the monitor controls to adjust the display for x-windows. There may be some display differences when switching back to text mode, but it is better than damaging equipment. xvidtune can be ran later using /stand/sysinstall.

    Read the xvidtune(1) man page before making any adjustments.

  9. Saving Configuration

    When you are satisfied, the configuration can now be saved. Select Save the configuration and Exit The configuration file will be saved to /etc/XF86Config.

Once the configuration is done, the installation program will need to create a link to the server :

             Do you want to create an 'X' link to the SVGA server? 
    
                   (the link will be created in the directory:
                            /usr/X11R6/bin) Okay?
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to create the link.

                            Link created successfully.
    
                                      [ OK ]

Press Enter to continue configuration.

2.9.12 Select Default X Desktop

There are a variety of window managers available. They range from very basic environments to full desktop environments with a large suite of software. Some require only minimal disk space and low memory while others with more features require much more. The best way to determine which is most suitable for you is to try a few different ones. Those are available from the ports collection or as packages and can be added after installation.

You can select one of the popular desktops to be installed and configured as the default desktop. This will allow you to start it right after installation.

Figure 2-52. Select Default Desktop

Use the arrow keys to select a desktop and press Enter. Installation of the selected desktop will proceed.

2.9.13 Install Packages

The packages are pre-compiled binaries and are a convenient way to install software.

Installation of one package is shown for purposes of illustration. Additional packages can also be added at this time if desired. After installation /stand/sysinstall can be used to add additional packages.

                         User Confirmation Requested
     The FreeBSD package collection is a collection of hundreds of
     ready-to-run applications, from text editors to games to WEB servers
     and more. Would you like to browse the collection now? 
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Selecting [ Yes ] and pressing Enter will be followed by the Package Selection screens:

Figure 2-53. Select Package Category

All packages available will be displayed if All is selected or you can select a particular category. Highlight your selection with the arrow keys and press Enter.

A menu will display showing all the packages available for the selection made.

Figure 2-54. Select Packages

The bash shell is shown selected. Select as many as desired by highlighting the package and pressing the Space. A short description of each package will appear in the lower left corner of the screen.

Pressing the Tab key will toggle between the last selected package, [ OK ], and [ Cancel ].

When you have finished marking the packages for installation, press Tab once to toggle to the [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the Package Selection menu.

The left and right arrow keys will also toggle between [ OK ] and [ Cancel ]. This method can also be used to select [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the Package Selection menu.

Figure 2-55. Install Packages

Use the arrow keys to select [ Install ] and press Enter. You will then need to confirm that you want to install the packages.

Figure 2-56. Confirm Package Installation

Selecting [ OK ] and pressing Enter will start the package installation. Installing messages will appear until completed. Make note if there are any error messages.

The final configuration continues after packages are installed.

2.9.14 Add User/Groups

You should add at least one user during the installation so that you can use the system without being logged in as root. The root partition is generally small and running applications as root can quickly fill it. A bigger danger is noted below :

                         User Confirmation Requested
     Would you like to add any initial user accounts to the system? Adding
     at least one account for yourself at this stage is suggested since
     working as the "root" user is dangerous (it is easy to do things which
     adversely affect the entire system). 
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to continue with adding a user.

Figure 2-57. Select Add User

Select Add User with the arrow keys and press Enter.

Figure 2-58. Add User Information

The following descriptions will appear in the lower part of the screen as the items are selected with Tab to assist with entering the required information.

Login ID

The login name of the new user (mandatory)

UID

The numerical ID for this user (leave blank for automatic choice)

Group

The login group name for this user (leave blank for automatic choice)

Password

The password for this user (enter this field with care!)

Full name

The user's full name (comment)

Member groups

The groups this user belongs to (i.e. gets access rights for)

Home directory

The user's home directory (leave blank for default)

Login shell

The user's login shell (leave blank for default). (/bin/sh)

The login shell was changed from /bin/sh to /usr/local/bin/bash to use the bash shell that was previously installed as a package. Do not try to use a shell that does not exist or you will not be able to login.

The user was also added to the group "wheel" to be able to become a superuser with root privileges.

When you are satisfied, press [ OK ] and the User and Group Management menu will redisplay.

Figure 2-59. Exit User and Group Management

Groups could also be added at this time if specific needs are known. Otherwise, this may be accessed through using /stand/sysinstall after installation is completed.

When you are finished adding users, select Exit with the arrow keys and press Enter to continue the installation.

2.9.15 Set root Password

                            Message
     Now you must set the system manager's password.  
     This is the password you'll use to log in as "root". 
    
                             [ OK ] 
    
                   [ Press enter to continue ]

Press Enter to set the root password.

The password will need to be typed in twice correctly. Needless to say, make sure you have a way of finding the password if you forget.

    Changing local password for root. 
     New password : 
     Retype new password :

The installation will continue after the password is successfully entered.

2.9.16 Exiting Install

If you need to configure additional network devices or to do any other configurations, you can do it at this point or after installation with /stand/sysinstall.

                         User Confirmation Requested
     Visit the general configuration menu for a chance to set any last
     options? 
    
                                  Yes   [ No ]

Selecting [ No ] with the arrow keys and pressing Enter returns to the Main Installation Menu

Figure 2-60. Exit Install

Select [X Exit Install] with the arrow keys and press Enter. You will be asked to confirm exiting the installation :

                         User Confirmation Requested
     Are you sure you wish to exit? The system will reboot (be sure to  
     remove any floppies from the drives). 
    
                                [ Yes ]   No

Select [ Yes ] and remove floppy if booting from floppy. The CDROM drive is locked until the machine starts to reboot. The CDROM drive is then unlocked and can be removed from drive (quickly).

The system will reboot so watch for any error messages that may appear.

2.9.17 FreeBSD Bootup

2.9.17.1 FreeBSD Bootup on the i386

If everything went well, you will see messages scroll off the screen and you will arrive at a login prompt. You can view the content of the messages by pressing Scroll-Lock and using PgUp and PgDn. Pressing Scroll-Lock again will return to the prompt.

The entire message may not display (buffer limitation) but it can be viewed from the command line after logging in by typing dmesg at the prompt.

Login using the username/password you set during installation (rpratt, in this example). Avoid logging in as root except when necessary.

Typical boot messages :

    Copyright (c) 1992-2001 The FreeBSD Project. 
    Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1994 
            The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. 
    FreeBSD 4.3-RELEASE #0: Sat Apr 21 10:54:49 GMT 2001 
        jkh@narf.osd.bsdi.com:/usr/src/sys/compile/GENERIC 
    Timecounter "i8254"  frequency 1193182 Hz 
    CPU: AMD-K6(tm) 3D processor (300.68-MHz 586-class CPU) 
      Origin = "AuthenticAMD"  Id = 0x580  Stepping = 0 
      Features=0x8001bf<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,MCE,CX8,MMX> 
      AMD Features=0x80000800<SYSCALL,3DNow!> 
    real memory  = 268435456 (262144K bytes) 
    config> di sn0 
    config> di lnc0 
    config> di le0 
    config> di ie0 
    config> di fe0 
    config> di cs0 
    config> di bt0 
    config> di ata1 
    config> di aic0 
    config> di aha0 
    config> di adv0 
    config> q 
    avail memory = 256983040 (250960K bytes) 
    Preloaded elf kernel "kernel" at 0xc044d000. 
    Preloaded userconfig_script "/boot/kernel.conf" at 0xc044d09c. 
    md0: Malloc disk 
    npx0: <math processor> on motherboard 
    npx0: INT 16 interface 
    pcib0: <Host to PCI bridge> on motherboard 
    pci0: <PCI bus> on pcib0 
    pcib1: <VIA 82C598MVP (Apollo MVP3) PCI-PCI (AGP) bridge> at device 1.0 on pci0 
    pci1: <PCI bus> on pcib1 
    pci1: <Matrox MGA G200 AGP graphics accelerator> at 0.0 irq 11 
    isab0: <VIA 82C586 PCI-ISA bridge> at device 7.0 on pci0 
    isa0: <ISA bus> on isab0 
    atapci0: <VIA 82C586 ATA33 controller> port 0xe000-0xe00f at device 7.1 on pci0 
    ata0: at 0x1f0 irq 14 on atapci0 
    ata1: at 0x170 irq 15 on atapci0 
    uhci0: <VIA 83C572 USB controller> port 0xe400-0xe41f irq 10 at device 7.2 on pci0 
    usb0: <VIA 83C572 USB controller> on uhci0 
    usb0: USB revision 1.0 
    uhub0: VIA UHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1 
    uhub0: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered 
    chip1: <VIA 82C586B ACPI interface> at device 7.3 on pci0 
    ed0: <NE2000 PCI Ethernet (RealTek 8029)> port 0xe800-0xe81f irq 9 at
    device 10.0 on pci0 
    ed0: address 52:54:05:de:73:1b, type NE2000 (16 bit) 
    isa0: too many dependant configs (8) 
    isa0: unexpected small tag 14 
    fdc0: <NEC 72065B or clone> at port 0x3f0-0x3f5,0x3f7 irq 6 drq 2 on isa0
    fdc0: FIFO enabled, 8 bytes threshold 
    fd0: <1440-KB 3.5" drive> on fdc0 drive 0 
    atkbdc0: <keyboard controller (i8042)> at port 0x60-0x6f on isa0 
    atkbd0: <AT Keyboard> flags 0x1 irq 1 on atkbdc0 
    kbd0 at atkbd0 
    psm0: <PS/2 Mouse> irq 12 on atkbdc0 
    psm0: model Generic PS/2 mouse, device ID 0 
    vga0: <Generic ISA VGA> at port 0x3c0-0x3df iomem 0xa0000-0xbffff on isa0
    sc0: <System console> at flags 0x1 on isa0 
    sc0: VGA <16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300> 
    sio0 at port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 flags 0x10 on isa0 
    sio0: type 16550A 
    sio1 at port 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa0 
    sio1: type 16550A 
    ppc0: <Parallel port> at port 0x378-0x37f irq 7 on isa0 
    ppc0: SMC-like chipset (ECP/EPP/PS2/NIBBLE) in COMPATIBLE mode 
    ppc0: FIFO with 16/16/15 bytes threshold 
    ppi0: <Parallel I/O> on ppbus0 
    lpt0: <Printer> on ppbus0 
    lpt0: Interrupt-driven port 
    plip0: <PLIP network interface> on ppbus0 
    ad0: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata0-master using UDMA33 
    ad2: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata1-master using UDMA33 
    acd0: CDROM <DELTA OTC-H101/ST3 F/W by OIPD> at ata0-slave using PIO4 
    Mounting root from ufs:/dev/ad0s1a 
    swapon: adding /dev/ad0s1b as swap device 
    Automatic boot in progress... 
    /dev/ad0s1a: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS 
    /dev/ad0s1a: clean, 70119 free (655 frags, 8683 blocks, 0.7% fragmentation) 
    /dev/ad0s1f: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS 
    /dev/ad0s1f: clean, 6976313 free (51774 frags, 829297 blocks, 0.7% fragmentation) 
    /dev/ad0s1e: filesystem CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS 
    /dev/ad0s1e: clean, 97952 free (9 frags, 12381 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation) 
    Doing initial network setup: hostname. 
    lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384 
            inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x8 
            inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 
            inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 
    Additional routing options: tcp extensions=NO IP gateway=YES TCP
    keepalive=YES 
    routing daemons:. 
    additional daemons: syslogd. 
    Doing additional network setup: portmap. 
    Starting final network daemons: creating ssh RSA host key 
    Generating RSA keys:  Key generation complete. 
    Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. 
    Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub. 
    The key fingerprint is: 
    2d:02:37:d2:0e:68:93:8f:9c:46:de:92:f4:be:60:0a root@k6-2.example.com 
     creating ssh DSA host key 
    Generating DSA parameter and key. 
    Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. 
    Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub. 
    The key fingerprint is: 
    38:af:d2:1f:63:14:00:d8:83:fd:dd:4b:97:1c:43:6d root@k6-2.example.com. 
    setting ELF ldconfig path: /usr/lib /usr/lib/compat /usr/X11R6/lib
    /usr/local/lib 
    setting a.out ldconfig path: /usr/lib/aout /usr/lib/compat/aout
    /usr/X11R6/lib/aout 
    starting standard daemons: inetd cron sendmail sshd usbd. 
    Initial rc.i386 initialization: linux. 
    rc.i386 configuring syscons: blank_time screensaver moused. 
    Additional ABI support: linux. 
    Local package initilization:. 
    Additional TCP options:. 
    
    FreeBSD/i386 (k6-2.example.com) (ttyv0)
    
    login: rpratt 
    Password:

Generating the RSA and DSA keys may take some time on slower machines. This happens only on the initial boot-up of a new installation. Subsequent boots will be faster.

If the X server has been configured and a Default Desktop chosen, it can be started by typing startx at the command line.

2.9.17.2 Bootup of FreeBSD on the Alpha

Once the install procedure has finished, you will be able to start FreeBSD by typing something like this to the SRM prompt:

    >>>BOOT DKC0

This instructs the firmware to boot the specified disk. To make FreeBSD boot automatically in the future, use these commands:

    >>> SET BOOT_OSFLAGS A
    >>> SET BOOT_FILE ''
    >>> SET BOOTDEF_DEV DKC0
    >>> SET AUTO_ACTION BOOT

The boot messages will be similar (but not identical) to those produced by FreeBSD booting on the i386.

2.9.18 FreeBSD Shutdown

It is important to properly shutdown the operating system. Do not just turn off power. First, become a superuser by typing su at the command line and entering the root password. This will work only if the user is a member of the group wheel. Otherwise, login as root and use shutdown -h now.

    The operating system has halted. 
    Please press any key to reboot.

It is safe to turn off the power after the shutdown command has been issued and the message "Please press any key to reboot" appears. If any key is pressed instead of turning off the power switch, the system will reboot.

This, and other documents, can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/.

For questions about FreeBSD, read the documentation before contacting <questions@FreeBSD.org>.
For questions about this documentation, e-mail <doc@FreeBSD.org>.